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2014-02-17
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正文
液压管接头的种类和选用 [2012-04-03]
分类:

管接头是油管与油管、油管与液压元件之间的可拆式连接件,它应满足装拆方便、连接牢靠、密封可靠、外形尺寸小、通油能力大、压力损失小、加工工艺性好等要求。按油管与管接头的连接方式,管接头主要有焊接式、卡套式、扩口式、扣压式等形式;
每种形式的管接头中,按接头的通路数量和方向分有直通、直角、三通等类型;与机体的连接方式有螺纹连接、法兰连接等方式。此外,还有一些满足特殊用途的管接头。 

1. 焊接式管接头
图 6.1所示为焊接式直通管接头,主要由接头体 4、螺母2和接管 l组成,在接头体和接管之间用o形密封圈 3密封。当接头体拧入机体时,采用金属垫圈或组合垫圈 5实现端面密封。接管与管路系统中的钢管用焊接连接。焊接式管接头连接牢固、密封可靠,缺点是装配时需焊接,因而必须采用厚壁钢管,且焊接工作量大。

 

2. 卡套式管接头
图 6.2所示为卡套式管接头结构。这种管接头主要包括具有 24°锥形孔的接头体4,带有尖锐内刃的卡套2,起压紧作用的压紧螺母3三个元件。旋紧螺母3时,卡套2被推进24°锥孔,并随之变形,使卡套与接头体内 锥面形成球面接触密封;同时,卡套的内刃口嵌入油管l的外壁,在外壁上压出一个环形凹槽,从而起到可靠的密封作用。卡套式管接头具有结构简单、性能良好、 质量轻、体积小、使用方便、不用焊接、钢管轴向尺寸要求不严等优点,且抗振性能好,工作压力可达 31.5MPa,是液压系统中较为理想的管路连接件。


3. 锥密封焊接式管接头
图 6.3所示为锥密封焊接式管接头结构。这种管接头主要由接头体 2、螺母4和接管5组成,除具有焊接式管接头的优点外,由于它的o形密封圈装在接管5的24°锥体上,使密封有调节的可能,密封更可靠。工作压力为 34.5MPa,工作温度为-25℃~80℃。这种管接头的使用越来越多。

4. 扩口式管接头
图 6.4所示是扩口式管接头结构。这种管接头有A型和B型两种结构形式:A型由具有74°外锥面的管接头体1、起压紧作用的螺母2和带有60°内锥孔的管套 3组成;B型由具有90°外锥的接头体l和带有90°内锥孔的螺母2组成。将已冲成喇叭口的管子置于接头体的外锥面和管套(或B型螺母)的内锥孔之间,旋 紧螺母使管子的喇叭口受压,挤贴于接头体外锥面和管套(或B型的螺母)内锥孔所产生的间隙中,从而起到密封作用。扩口式管接头结构简单、性能良好、加工和 使用方便,适用于以油、气为介质的中、低压管路系统,其工作压力取决于管材的许用压力,一般为3.5MPa~16MPa。 

5. 胶管总成
钢丝编织和钢丝缠绕胶管总成包括胶管和接头,有A,B,C,D,E,J,…型,其中A、B、C为标准型。A型用于与焊接式管接头连接,B型用于与卡套式管接头连接,C型
用于与扩口式管接头连接。图6.5所示是A、B型扣压式胶管总成。扣压式胶管接头主要由接头外套和接头芯组成。接头外套的内壁有环形切槽,接头芯的外壁呈圆柱形,上有径向
切槽。当剥去胶管的外胶层,将其套入接头芯时,拧紧接头外套并在专用设备上扣压,以紧密连接。

6. 快速接头
快 速接头是一种不需要使用工具就能够实现管路迅速连通或断开的接头。快速接头有两种结构形式:两端开闭式和两端开放式。如图6.6所示为两端开闭式快速接头 的结构图。接头体2、10的内腔各有一个单向阀阀芯4,当两个接头体分离时,单向阀阀芯由弹簧3推动,使阀芯紧压在接头体的锥形孔上,关闭两端通路,使介 质不能流出。当两个接头体
连接时,两个单向阀阀芯前端的顶杆相碰,迫使阀芯后退并压缩弹簧,使通路打开。两个接头体之间的连接,是利用接头体2上的6个(或8个)钢球落在接头体10上的V形槽内而实现的。工作时,钢珠由外套6压住而无法退出,外套由弹簧7顶住,保持在右端位置。www.cnczg.com镜博士科技 镜面滚压刀具 数控光机

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